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The claims of fractional quantum states of hydrogen, most notably the Hydrino, have been controversial for years. Classical quantum mechanics states hydrogen in free space exists at the minimal ground state but the ground states inside a cavity such as the skeletal catalyst used by BlackLight Power are claimed to take on fractional quantum states far smaller than this ground state. This is fiercely disputed and considered in error by the mainstream physics community but an alternate proposal from Jan Naudts that would allow for a radius that appears fractional from a relativistic perspective was considered a possibiity. In a relativistic interpretation atoms appear smaller and faster just as they would between any two inertial frames where the difference in accelerational approaches luminal velocities. Jan Naudts paper (5 August 2005). "On the hydrino state of the relativistic hydrogen atom" [5] contends that the fractional quantum state argument overlooks relativistic effect inside Casimir cavities but only solves for nuclear reactions magnitudes higher than the 137 fractional states claimed by Mills. In 2007 Ronald Bourgoin published a paper that showed the general wave equation predicts exactly the 137 inverse principal quantum levels claimed by Mills. His equations normally applied to photons require a relativistic environment for use with electrons so the orbital can appear to collapse spatially below the Bohr radius from an observer outside the cavity and electrons can appear to occupy the same spatial co-ordinates just like photons. The fractional quantum radius only exists from our perspective outside the cavity observing the hydrino inside. The Bourgoin solutions suggest Mills hydrino is similar to the earth bound twin paradox -the hydrino is just hydrogen totally unaware of its' multiple second per second existence relative to the more accelerated observer in the gravitational field outside the cavity.(velocity accumulates through through equivalence). Only when the still young twin returns to earth or the now “old” hydrogen exits the cavity does the time dilation become apparent (otherwise relativity dictates that observers in either frame see each others clocks as running slower and their size reduced (Lorentzian contraction).

 

The Casimir effect is a physical force arising from a quantized field. Two closely spaced uncharged conductive plates without any external electromagnetic field will develop a force of attraction between themselves. In a classical description, the lack of an external field would mean that there is no field between the plates, and no force would be measured between them. From the perspective of QED( quantum electrodynamics) however, the plates do affect the virtual photons which constitute the field, and generate a net force, either an attraction or a repulsion, depending on the specific arrangement of the two plates. This force has been measured, and is a striking example of an effect purely due to second order quantization. Dutch physicists Hendrik Casimir and Dirk Polder first proposed the existence of the force and formulated an experiment to detect it in 1948 while participating in research at Philips Research Labs. The classic form of the experiment, described above, successfully demonstrated the force to within 15% of the value predicted by the theory. In 2003 this force was measured to within 5% of theory.

The exclusion field associated with Casimir cavities represents a very local gravitational depletion zone as opposed to the more familiar concentration zone of a gravity well. QED refers to this exclusion of longer wave length vacuum fluctuations inside a Casimir cavity as "up conversion" but I think Naudts relativistic solution is actually at work. I believe time is occurring at multiple seconds per second for atoms diffused inside the cavity inversely proportional to the cube of the distance between "plates" as indicated by the Casimir formula for non-ideal conductors. If the Casimir geometry is permeable to H1 but not H2 it allows for these relativistic H1 atoms to form relativistic H2 atoms while already at accumulated velocity which will try to break the relativistic H2 apart to free it from the confinement of the cavity geometry.A 1996 paper, "Cavity QED" by Zofia Bialynicka-Birula reinforces Bourgoins use of Poincare equation and her reference to the position dependent energy shift supports the Casimir Lamb shift mechanism that Haish and Moddel propose to exploit in their 2008 patent. This paper also supports Naudts use of Klein Gordon equations for a spin 1/2 particle which is often criticised because it means that electrons must be able to occupy the same spatial co-ordinates and states. The argument is that in a relativistic environment some electrons can "appear" to satisfy this requirement dictating that the solution only pertains to atoms in different inertial frames. This environment was already known to exist at astonomical distances inside a gravitational well but recent theory now suggests that it also exists at the microscopic level in a Casimir cavity. The Casimir cavity has an abrupt "equivalence boundary" providing the potential to exploit this delta in energy density.

 

What Mills’ calls fractional states may represent a population of hydrogen atoms in different equivalent acceleration frames proportional to Casimir effect that can accumulate a difference in velocity and appear to occupy the same spatial parameters from a perspective of an observer in the normal acceleration frame outside the cavity. A paper by Thomas Prevenslik "Casimir force – neutral or electrostatic?"explaining Casimir effect instead through QED “up-conversion” does not require vacuum fluctuations, this method simply requires nature to up convert IR >> VUV per conservation of energy and plates are pulled together through induced electrostatic force. My relativistic interpertation of "up conversion" of vacuum fluctuations produce equivalent acceleration between the outside observer and hydrogen atoms difused inside of the cavity. ALL Frequencies inside the cavity APPEAR up converted through time dilation and all metrics based on time such as gravity are equally modified from our perspective. This conversion translates the vacuum flux above the 2Thz dividing line that Beck and Mackey propose to be more gravitationally active. The entire spectrum inside the "shielded" cavity “ages” at multiple seconds per second relative to the equivalent acceleration outside the cavity. I call this “relative” up conversion because the observer inside the cavity sees outside the cavity in the same manner we observe an event horizon.Christian Beck and Michael Mackey publish papers, "Measureability of vacuum fluctuations and dark energy" and "Electromagnetic dark energy" relating virtual photons with frequency less than 2 THz are more gravitationally active than those above. Their claims are presently only theoretical awaiting experimental evidence to prove slower virtual photons are more gravitationally active. This would support my premise that the ratio of slow to fast virtual photons reflect changes in space time such as an event horizon, normal flat space and even Casimir cavities.

 

Relativistic hydrogen exists in a different acceleration frame caused by an equivalence boundary formed by the Casimir plates. Vacuum fluctuation isotopy is broken and the restriction of longer wavelength fluctuations or larger virtual particles as they are also known causes what QED refers to as "up conversion" where the longer restricted wavelengths are replaced by shorter wavelengths. The relativistic perspective however would mean the wavelengths are curving space to fit between the plates. We as 3D beings are only able to see the chords of the arc path that the waveform takes through 4D space.


1 Introduction
Black Light Power [1] , founded by Dr Randell Mills, was confirmed in an October 2008 video by Rowan University [2] to produce far more calories than chemically possible for the given hydrogen impregnation in a 50KW reactor. The hydrogen and catalyst are brought up to 200C at which point the reaction produces far more heat than Rowan chemists can account for with standard chemistry and the reaction produces a signature Black Light plasma. Dr Mills coined the term hydrino but definded them (incorrectly) to have fractional quantum states below the ground state. This theory was challenged by Andre Rathke (May 2005) paper "A critical analysis of the hydrino model". [4] however Rathke's paper was itself soon challenged by Jan Naudts paper (5 August 2005). "On the hydrino state of the relativistic hydrogen atom" [5] which demonstrated that Rathke had not allowed for relativistic effects - this represented a 3rd option which actually did not agree with Mills or Rathke. Naudts proposal was much better received but only solved for a nuclear condition many magnitudes higher than the 137 fractional states claimed by Mills. In June of 2007 Ronald Bourgoin, once a graduate student of Robert Carroll’s, published a paper [7] that showed the general wave equation predicts exactly the 137 inverse principal quantum levels claimed by Mills. Bourgoin failed to emphasize the relativistic signifigance of the type of equations he used allowing the controversey and skepticsm to grow. Both Naudts and Bourgoin used integer spin equations normally reserved for photons and skeptics argued that 1/2 spin electrons can not occupy the same space and state, these fractional states would simply fall away if the appropriate Dirac equations were used! A 1996 paper "Cavity QED* " by Zofia Bialynicka-Birula addresses this with the destruction of isotropy inside a cavity and resulting effect on invariance under transformations of the Poincare group which supports the equation selection by Naudts and Bourgoin. Math performed from a relativistic perspective allows electrons to occupy what appear to be the the same spatial coordinates and states due to divergent frames of hydrogen populations at different acceleration rates but spatially stationary, a back door way to extend the use of the equations. The hydrogen inside the cavity is unaware of any change relative to nearby hydrogen and the orbital radius never becomes fractional. The Casimir cavity sets up a new type of equivalence where very locally vacuum fluctuations are depleted instead of the normal concentration caused by mass. In 2002 a paper [8]"Vacuum fluctuation force on a rigid Casimir cavity in a gravitational field" by Italian researchers Enrico Calloni, Luciano Di Fiore, Giampiero Esposito, Leopoldo Milano, Luigi Rosa discusses the possibility of verifying the equivalence principle for the zero-point energy of quantum electrodynamics, by evaluating the force, produced by vacuum fluctuations, acting on a rigid Casimir cavity in a weak gravitational field. The resulting force has opposite direction with respect to the gravitational acceleration, Their proposal indicates equivalent acceleration outside the cavity relative to inside the cavity. Although the force levels they mention , 10^-14N, initially seem inconsequential it results in a constant acceleration just like an ion drive which can eventually produce huge velocities. I suspect that the disassociation energy often used to produce monatomic hydrogen can also contribute to this acceleration vector because of the spatial confinement and reorientation of the vacuum fluctuations. The cavity accelerates time from our perspective and could be related to what we commonly call catalytic action. . The minimal approach to the hydrogen nucleus in a cavity is still the Bohr radius but the orbital has a differnt temporal coordinate so we only see the cos of the radius. This results in the observable fractional quantum states claimed for "hydrino" or more acurately relativistic hydrogen. These relativistic states would account for the non radiative translation claimed by Dr Mills when he defined the hydrino. They only appear to reshape smaller but they really do accelerate accounting for time dilation or with the appropriate diatomic membrane such as Pd or Rayney nickel can account for excess heat. the "fast" relativistic h1 is not impeded but is immediately torn apart if it tries to form a compound, monatomic energy is restored accounting for a free photon on each attempt at compound formation converting velocity to heat.

Jan Naudts mathematical evidence [5] of a “relativistic” solution fits well with Dr Mills assertions of a non radiative transition between "states" and Bougoins proof of the 137 energy "states". The nonradiative transitions do not support Mill's claim of true subground states, The energy level and orbital radius actually remain unchanged from a 4D perspective when translating in and out of these exclusion fields. The reduced size from our perspective is due to accumulated velocity resulting in Lamb shift and temporal displacement. on May 27th 2008 Bernard Haisch and Garret Moddel were awarded a patent [6] for a device based on stochastic electrodynamics which also uses hydrogen in a Casimir cavity in a method they prefer to call Casimir-Lamb shift. Their prototype design consists of Casimir cavities formed by milled columns through metallic plates separated by insulation layers arranged in a stack. They mill .1 micron tunnels through the interleaved copper and insulation layers. The pores of Black Light's skeletal catalyst Rayney nickel have a Casimir geometry 10-100 times smaller but only a single opening while the Haisch design has an unbroken circulation path through the entire array of columns where each row is seperated by a nonconductive layer. This forces gas atoms diffusing through the depletion zones in each "cell" of each column to vary through its full range of Casimir values when transitioning between "cells". A recent discovery by Peng Chen at Cornell University Finds nanotubes only have catalytic action at ends and at defects where plate spacing changes. This indicates it is the change in Casimir force with change in plate spacing that is necessary to initiate the catalytic action, therefore the Haisch - Moddel cavity columns with insulation layers should outperform natures design like the skeletal catalysts used by Mills by forcing the gas atoms to maximize their transitions through what Peng indicates as "catalytic" zones. Although the skeletal catalyst has stronger depletion fields due to much smaller geometry the Rowan validations appear to release a burst of energy and then the BLP reactors are finished suggesting that the hydride byproducts may be from a destructive phase where the hydrgen is reacting with the cavity wall to nullify the Casimir force and stop the runaway condition through melt down or growing shorts between the plates. The Haisch design of .1u diameter cavities are much weaker, form columns that allow distribution /circulation control and mixing ratios of diatomic to monatomic gases to prevent runaway plus a much simpler method of heat exchange. Although their theory employs Casimir - Lamb shift/ pinch vs Mills hydrino vs Arata's pycodeuterium vs fractional and relativistic theories they all require Casimir geometry to exploit their claims. I focus on the Naudts proposal because only relativity provides an escape clause to conservation of energy where reshaping of time and space allows for mechanical energy to be exchanged for time (hydrogen ages rapidly in exchange for heat).

 

The Case for Energy from Relativistic Hydrogen To rectify heat energy instead of catalytic action from vacuum fluctuations requires a special set of circumstances. It requires a rigid Casimir geometry to oppose diatomic mobility like a Pd membrane and it requires fast (relativistic) hydrogen that accumulates velocity in opposition to the membrane when bonding at velocity occurs. It requires monatomic gas (H1) delivered to the narrowest portions of the Casimir cavity where it accelerates courtesy of the vacuum fluctuation orientation. This orientation may also allow disassociation energy to contribute to the velocity along the acceleration vector. The fast hydrogen accumulates velocity until it bonds with a like atom to form a relativistic compound and gives off a photon. Once formed it is immediately broken by the cavitys' membrane like opposition to diatomic mobiity. Randell Mills’ founder of Black Light Power claims a fractional quantum state of hydrogen he coins the "hydrino" which is formed inside skeletal catalyst Rayney nickel and has up to 137 fractional quantum states. The hydrino is claimed to produce much more heat energy than chemistry can explain inside the pores / cavities of the catalyst. The output energy was validated twice by Rowan University, most recently on August 12 th using off the shelf materials instead of materials prepared by Black Light Power. This establishes an easier path to replication and additional replications should be expected to follow. The theory however is still fiercely disputed and mainstream scientists continue to propose alternate solutions such as a Casimir-Lamb shift proposed by Haisch -Moddel from the perspective of Casimir cavities.



I propose the ratio of virtual photons ( >2 THz) / ( <2 THz) decreases approaching an event horizon to reflect Beck’s theory that slower virtual photons are more gravitationally active. The “up-conversion” in a Casimir cavity if relativistic would up convert all frequencies including virtual photons from our perspective outside the cavity, but the increased ratio of fast to slow virtual photons is now in the opposite direction creating a gravity “Hill” or lack of gravitationally active virtual photons as opposed to a gravity “Well”. This effect would be Omni directional in normal matter and quickly average out but in Casimir plates is directional and sums to create very local differentials where the shielded areas can be concentrated between two plates. These gravitational hills then see the normal space outside the cavity as down hill from their perspective just as we see an event horizon. The stage is now set for equivalence without the astronomical distances or crushing gravity of an event horizon. Although flat space doesn’t have the resistance to time flow of an event horizon it does still have a certain default fraction thereof, the shielded hydrogen inside the cavity however only experiences a small fraction of this default value based on Casimir geometry resulting in equivalent acceleration between hydrogen inside the cavity vs. outside. This has the unlikely consequence of time dilation and Lorentz contraction occurring to hydrogen inside the cavity relative to outside the cavity. The correct choice of material and geometry (Rayney nickel) can then act as a membrane to preferentially scale only the monatomic gas (Mills and Moddel) into what appears from our perspective to be increasingly smaller geometry where molecular gas can not follow, Then if these fractional atoms form a fractional molecule they become trapped just like the molecular gas left behind at the entrance when the atoms started diffusing into the increasingly smaller geometry of the cavity walls. The difference is that these fractional molecules that don’t even perceive themselves as fractional are trapped inside the membrane and when diffused by gas law will have their molecular bond broken by the confinement restoring monatomic energy levels and allowing the atoms to change to the new fractional value before finding another fractional atom to recombine into a different fractional molecule and give off the freely acquired energy as a photon. The cycle then cascades until the gas escapes or the heat destroys the cavity.
orbital velocity is involved as Bourgoin’s 2006 math paper indicates below but the speed of 2.18 million meters/s for 1/137 fractional state is a relativistic measurement and could also be described as cavity induced time dilation(Di Fiore et al)since the two frames are clocking at different time rates where we consider ourselves outside the cavity to be at 1 second per second while inside would be 137 seconds per second for his example and the volume time product would remain constant. I believe the time volume product represents a 4D structure with the ability to twist it’s orientation between the x axis representing volume (XYZ)and the Y axis representing time as a spatial direction. These structures represent different world lines and their 3D existence is unchanged in their locality –it is only differentially that changes in 3D profile can be observed from another world line.

Below I propose fractional multipliers for Bohr radius based on a ground state orbital assumed to be a 45 degrees. The radius never changes but the trig portion obsevable from diverging frames is represented. Bohr radius/C = propagation time = 17.7 E-18 seconds.
Volume = 4/3 pi r^3 = 6.20E-31 m^3 VOLUME x TIME = PRODUCT
When radius is 1/137 min the time is a max 17.7 E-18 seconds so the product = 6.20E-31/137 meters^3 * 17.7 E-18 s = 8.01E-52 m^3s
When radius is 1/1 max the time is a min 17.7 E-18/137 seconds so the product = 6.20E-31 meters^3 * 17.7 E-18/137 s = 8.01E-52 m^3s



    3D is compressed into a single axis as the product volume
    I set N =1 at 45 degree for flat space where orbital is assumed to share space time dimensions equally.
    As velocity approaches C on spatial axis( x=volume), Time axis is suppressed (event horizon), velozity all in X axis with little or no Y component
    As velocity approaches C on time axis (y= time), Volume axis is suppressed (Casimir cavity). velocity all in Y axis with little or no X component

    ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    2006 Bourgoin paper INVERSE QUANTUM STATES OF HYDROGEN shows volume contraction

    And solves for electron velocity @ fractonal states as simply C divided by n.

Note perspective below is view from outside cavity looking inside. The hydogen atoms inside the cavity all appear to be hydrogen atoms relative to each other. The "hydrino" only occurs as a matter of relativistic perspective. The hydrino is esssentially the earth bound twin in the "twin paradox" the hydrino sees hydrogen outside the cavity as slow moving and Lorentz contracted just like we see the space faring twin approaching C or perhaps more appropriately approaching C through equivalence by approaching an event horizon because the hydrino sees outside the cavity as a deep gravity well compared to the shielded area inside the cavity just like we see an event horizon.

 

  • The Casimir effect causes two closely spaced parallel uncharged conducting plates to attract
  • According to the quantum theory, the vacuum contains virtual particles which are in a continuous state of fluctuation. When plate spacing does not equal a whole number of wavelengths these longer wavelengths are replaced with shorter wavelengths that do.
  • Although controversial regarding the nature of this force both camps agree bracing plates apart creates a permanent field where long wavelengths are excluded.
  • The longer excluded wavelengths are replaced by shorter wavelengths inside the cavity in a process QED calls “up conversion”.
  • We are proposing this “up conversion” is performed relativisticlly. The longer wavelengths are still present but only appear faster from our perspective through time dilation and equivalence.
  • This theory would explain many
    reports of anomalous heat, fractional quantum states and give new insight into the true nature of catalytic action.


  • Casimir plates are considered as moving but In a real cavity with irregular surfaces the plates remain stationary and the simple motion dictated by gas law moves the atoms and molecules relative to the plate surfaces.
  • We are proposing an alternate hydrino theory that accounts for anomalous heat data
    long associated with hydrogen ground states and catalytic action.
  • We propose that certain rigid catalysts only allow atomic hydrogen to migrate between Fractional quantum states induced by Casimir geometry. Fractional state H2 can be formed inside the cavity but then is unable to change fractional states. In order for the atoms of this dihydrino to change fractional states the vacuum flux must organize to break the covalent bonds allowing the atoms to translate and then reform a molecule.

As vacuum flux "appear" smaller so too does any matter inside the
Casimir cavity contract, this is a manifestation of Lorentz contraction

The frequency of photon emission is also up-converted and slews across the spectrun as the fractional states cascade to produce the signature Black Light Plasma

  • To rectify heat energy instead of catalytic action from Casimir cavities requires a special set of circumstances. a rigid array of Casimir geometries where plates resist motion and monatomic gas delivered deep into the exclusion field where translation to fractional state allows even deeper penetration and formation of fractional state molecules in a very confined space.
  • The “dihydrino” then diffuses around inside the cavity according to gas law. This relative motion to the stationary plates cause vacuum fluctuations to change ratio but the fractional states of the atoms is locked by the covalent bond which gets broken as byproduct of the force the flux are exerting on the atoms to change to a different fractional value.
  • The fluctuations accumulate strong boundary conditions and break the covalent bonds as the Casimir force changes with plate spacing. In a weaker Casimir cavity (catalyst) the parallel plates would simply bend allowing the dihydrino to escape the lattice confinement and scale to new fractional state value without the need to break the molecular bonds. This produces no heat but is responsible for normal catalytic acceleration where the reactants appear to do in minutes what would take hours without a catalyst. From the reactants perspective however they did put in the hours.
  • Our proposal extends the atomic ZPF model to reflect the 4D curvature of space-time which becomes significant as the radius collapses to fractional quantum states.

  • inverse principal quantum levels imply a constant 4D volume, As the orbit size gets smaller the temporal width increases (like stirring your coffee faster the foam contracts to a smaller orbit in the center while the vortex extends deeper into the cup). This reshaped atom will revert unless a chemical reaction locks the shape into a molecule forcing the vacuum flux to do work to disassociate it.

 

  • If our perspective is skewed observing hydrogen from outside a Casimir cavity then it follows that space- time forms an entire spectrum of phase angles from event horizons down to these fractional quantum states. Science already accepts the temporal anomalies such as Lorentz contraction and time dialation associated with an event horizon and it is time to Consider catalysts and Casimir cavities in the same light.
  • on May 27th 2008 Bernard Haisch and Garret Moddel were awarded a patent for a device based on stochastic electrodynamics which also describes a fractional quantum state but exploits what they refer to as a Casimir Lamb shift. Jan Naudts mathematical evidence [5] of a “relativistic” solution and Ron Bougoins math paper confirming the 137 energy states claimed by Mills suggests an alternate theory to these fractional quantum states as a relativistic perspective between accelerating frames where the fractional state represent the trig portion of the Bohr radius observable from another frame. this is reinforced by
  • Dr Mills assertions of a non radiative transition below ground state where the energy level remains unchanged while translating between fractional states. I am proposing that what QED refers to as "up conversion" is actually relativistic.

References

1. Black Light Power Inc. www.blacklightpower.com
2. Rowan University Confirmation Video http://www.blacklightpower.com/Documentary%20Video/blacklight_experiment_video_v2.wmv
3.
Randell Mills “The Grand Unified Theory of Classical Physics” http://www.blacklightpower.com/theory/theory.shtml
4.
Andre Rathke (May 2005). “ A critical analysis of the hydrino model” New Journal of Physics 2005 http://www.iop.org/EJ/abstract/1367-2630/7/1/127/
5. Jan Naudts (August 2005) “ On the hydrino state of relativistic hydrogen atom” http://arxiv.org/abs/physics/0507193v2
6. Bernard Haisch and Garret Moddel patent US 7,379,286 B2 awarded May 27, 2008
http://www.calphysics.org/Patent7379286.pdf
7. Bourgoin, Ronald C (2007). "INVERSE QUANTUM STATES OF HYDROGEN". The International Society for Condensed Matter Nuclear Science http://www.iscmns.org/asti06/Bourgoin%20RECIPROCAL%20QUANTUM%20STATES.pdf
8. Zofia Bialynicka-Birula "Cavity QED" http://th-www.if.uj.edu.pl/acta/vol27/pdf/v27p2409.pdf

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